Some look to Scripture (such as 2 Corinthians 5:10; 1 Corinthians 6:9-10; Revelation 20:11-12) and find that people are judged on the basis of sins voluntary and consciously committed. In other words, as Sam Storms explains, "eternal judgment is always based on conscious rejection of divine revelation (whether in creation, conscience, or Christ) and willful disobedience."
Are infants capable of conscious rejection or willful disobedience to God? It can be argued that those who die in infancy are automatically saved because they do not and cannot incur divine judgment on these terms.
Can we really know?
Ultimately, none of us have the capacity to determine with dogmatic certainty which particular individuals God welcomes into His kingdom in life or death. "Although it is possible that God applies Christ’s payment for sin to those who cannot believe," Got Questions concludes, "the Bible does not specifically say that He does this."
While applying Christ’s death to those who cannot believe (babies, as well as mentally handicapped people) would seem consistent with God's love and mercy. It makes sense that since these individuals are not mentally capable of understanding their sinful state and need of the Savior, but again we cannot state this with authority as though Scripture teaches it plainly.
We can, however, rest in what the Bible does clearly teach: the Judge of all the earth will do right. He is gracious, loving, and holy, and the fullness of the earth and all its inhabitants are under His sovereign rule. And, as for our children, His capacity to love them is far greater than our own.
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